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TIOBE Index for April 2024

April Headline: Is PHP losing its mojo?

PHP hit its lowest position ever in the TIOBE index this month. When the TIOBE index started in 2001, PHP was about to become the standard language for building interactive web sites. Its popularity kept rising year after year: PHP eventually got a market share higher than 10% and even reached a top 3 position in the TIOBE index. After that, a lot of competitors entered the market. Examples of these so called web development frameworks are Rails, Django and React. The major driving languages behind these new frameworks were Ruby, Python and most notably JavaScript. On top of this competition, some security issues were found in PHP. As a result, PHP had to reinvent itself. Nowadays PHP still has a strong presence in the field of small and medium websites, and is the language behind the most popular web content management system WordPress. So, PHP is certainly not gone, but its glory days seem to be over. -- Paul Jansen, CEO TIOBE Software

The TIOBE Programming Community index is an indicator of the popularity of programming languages. The index is updated once a month. The ratings are based on the number of skilled engineers world-wide, courses and third party vendors. Popular web sites Google, Amazon, Wikipedia, Bing and more than 20 others are used to calculate the ratings. It is important to note that the TIOBE index is not about the best programming language or the language in which most lines of code have been written.

The index can be used to check whether your programming skills are still up to date or to make a strategic decision about what programming language should be adopted when starting to build a new software system. The definition of the TIOBE index can be found here.

Apr 2024 Apr 2023 Change Programming Language Ratings Change
11Python pagePython16.41%+1.90%
22C pageC10.21%-4.20%
34changeC++ pageC++9.76%-3.20%
43changeJava pageJava8.94%-4.29%
55C# pageC#6.77%-1.44%
67changeJavaScript pageJavaScript2.89%+0.79%
710changeGo pageGo1.85%+0.57%
86changeVisual Basic pageVisual Basic1.70%-2.70%
98changeSQL pageSQL1.61%-0.06%
1020changeFortran pageFortran1.47%+0.88%
1111Delphi/Object Pascal pageDelphi/Object Pascal1.47%+0.24%
1212Assembly language pageAssembly language1.30%+0.26%
1318changeRuby pageRuby1.24%+0.58%
1417changeSwift pageSwift1.23%+0.51%
1515Scratch pageScratch1.14%+0.35%
1614changeMATLAB pageMATLAB1.11%+0.25%
179changePHP pagePHP1.09%-0.26%
1838changeKotlin pageKotlin1.05%+0.80%
1919Rust pageRust1.03%+0.41%
2016changeR pageR0.84%+0.09%

Other programming languages

The complete top 50 of programming languages is listed below. This overview is published unofficially, because it could be the case that we missed a language. If you have the impression there is a programming language lacking, please notify us at tpci@tiobe.com. Please also check the overview of all programming languages that we monitor.

PositionProgramming LanguageRatings
29Classic Visual Basic0.60%
37(Visual) FoxPro0.36%
50Ladder Logic0.21%

The Next 50 Programming Languages

The following list of languages denotes #51 to #100. Since the differences are relatively small, the programming languages are only listed (in alphabetical order).

  • ABC, ActionScript, Apex, APL, AutoLISP, Bash, bc, Boo, Carbon, CFML, CHILL, CIL, CL (OS/400), Clojure, Cobra, Curl, DiBOL, Eiffel, Elixir, Elm, Groovy, Hack, Icon, Idris, Inform, Io, J, LabVIEW, Lingo, LiveCode, Maple, MQL5, Nim, OCaml, OpenEdge ABL, Oz, PL/I, PostScript, PowerShell, Pure Data, Q, Racket, Ring, Smalltalk, SNOBOL, Solidity, SPARK, SPSS, Wolfram, X++

Very Long Term History

To see the bigger picture, please find below the positions of the top 10 programming languages of many years back. Please note that these are average positions for a period of 12 months.

Programming Language20242019201420092004199919941989
Visual Basic719------
(Visual) Basic--745337

There are 2 important remarks here:

  • There is a difference between "Visual Basic" and "(Visual) Basic" in the table above. Until 2010, "(Visual) Basic" referred to all possible dialects of Basic, including Visual Basic. After some discussion, it has been decided to split "(Visual) Basic" into all its dialects such as Visual Basic .NET, Classic Visual Basic, PureBasic, and Small Basic, just to name a few. Since Visual Basic .NET has become the major implementation of Visual Basic, it is now called "Visual Basic".
  • The programming language SQL was added to the TIOBE index in 2018 after somebody pointed out that SQL is Turing Complete. So although this language is very old, it has only a short history in the index.

Programming Language Hall of Fame

The hall of fame listing all "Programming Language of the Year" award winners is shown below. The award is given to the programming language that has the highest rise in ratings in a year.

2023medal C#
2022medal C++
2021medal Python
2020medal Python
2019medal C
2018medal Python
2017medal C
2016medal Go
2015medal Java
2014medal JavaScript
2013medal Transact-SQL
2012medal Objective-C
2011medal Objective-C
2010medal Python
2009medal Go
2008medal C
2007medal Python
2006medal Ruby
2005medal Java
2004medal PHP
2003medal C++

Bugs & Change Requests

This is the top 5 of most requested changes and bugs. If you have any suggestions how to improve the index don’t hesitate to send an e-mail to tpci@tiobe.com.

  1. Apart from “<language> programming”, also other queries such as “programming with <language>”, “<language> development” and “<language> coding” should be tried out.
  2. Add queries for other natural languages (apart from English). The idea is to start with the Chinese search engine Baidu. This has been implemented partially and will be completed the next few months.
  3. Add a list of all search term requests that have been rejected. This is to minimize the number of recurring mails about Rails, JQuery, JSP, etc.
  4. Start a TIOBE index for databases, software configuration management systems and application frameworks.
  5. Some search engines allow to query pages that have been added last year. The TIOBE index should only track those recently added pages.

Yes, the only condition is to refer to its original source “www.tiobe.com”.

If a language meets the criteria of being listed (i.e. it is Turing complete and has an own Wikipedia entry that indicates that it concerns a programming language) and it is sufficiently popular (more than 5,000 hits for +”<language> programming” for Google), then please write an e-mail to tpci@tiobe.com.

We spent a lot of effort to obtain all the data and keep the TIOBE index up to date. In order to compensate a bit for this, we ask a fee of 5,000 US$ for the complete data set. The data set runs from June 2001 till today. It started with 25 languages back in 2001, and now measures more than 150 languages once a month. The data are available in comma separated format. Please contact sales@tiobe.com for more information.

Well, you can do it either way and both are wrong. If you take the sum, then you get the intersection twice. If you take the max, then you miss the difference. Which one to choose? Suppose somebody comes up with a new search term that is 10% of the original. If you take the max, nothing changes. If you take the sum then the ratings will rise 10%. So taking the sum will be an incentive for some to come up with all kinds of obscure terms for a language. That’s why we decided to take the max.

The proper way to solve this is is of course to take the sum and subtract the intersection. This will give rise to an explosion of extra queries that must be performed. Suppose a language has a grouping of 15 terms, then you have to perform 32,768 queries (all combinations of intersections). So this seems not possible either… If somebody has a solution for this, please let us know.

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